### Abstract:

Time-dependent cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere is studied by using a two-dimensional time dependent modulation model. To compute realistic cosmic ray modulation a compound approach is used, which combines the effect of the global changes in the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude and the current sheet tilt angle to establish realistic time dependent diffusion and drift coefficients. This approach is refined by scaling down drifts additionally (compared to diffusion) towards solar maximum. The amount of drifts needed in the model to realistically compute 2.5 GV proton and electron and 1.2 GV electron and helium intensities, as measured by Ulysses from 1990 to 2004, is established. It is shown that the model produces the correct latitudinal gradients evident from the observations during both the Ulysses fast latitude scan periods. Also, much can be learned on the magnitude of perpendicular diffusion in the polar direction, K<sub>[is perpendicular to]θ,</sub> especially for solar minimum conditions and for polarity cycles when particles drift in from the poles. For these periods K<sub>[is perpendicular to]θ</sub> = 0.12K<sub>[is parallel to]</sub> in the polar regions (with K<sub>[is parallel to]</sub> the parallel diffusion coefficient,) and K<sub>[is perpendicular to]θ</sub> /K<sub>[is parallel to]</sub> can vary between 0.01 to even 0.04 in the equatorial regions depending on the enhancement factor toward the poles. The model is also applied to compute radial gradients for 2.5 GV cosmic ray electrons and protons in the inner heliosphere. It is shown that, for solar minimum, and in the equatorial regions, the protons (electrons) have a radial gradient of 1.9 %/AU (2.9 %/AU), increasing for both species to a very fluctuating gradient varying between 3 to 4 %/AU at solar maximum. Furthermore, the model also computes realistic electron to proton and electron to helium ratios when compared to Ulysses observations, and charge-sign dependent modulation is predicted up to the next solar minimum expected in 2007. Lastly the model is also applied to model simultaneously galactic cosmic