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Responses of root-knot nematode densities to aqueous extracts of Chilli and Tamboti

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dc.contributor.advisor Van der Westhuizen C, Dr en
dc.contributor.advisor Mashela PW, Dr en
dc.contributor.author Thovhakale LP en
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-22T06:14:02Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-22T06:14:02Z
dc.date.created 2003 en
dc.date.submitted 2005 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11892/4055
dc.description.abstract Root-knot nematodes {Meloidogyne incognita) infect major crops, reducing the overall crop production and the production area. Available nematicides are expensive for small-scale crop farmers, and not environmentally friendly. Tamboti (Spirostachys africana) bark meal and Chilli (Capsicum frutescens) var. Serrano fruit were evaluated with regard to the control of root-knot nematode population densities, plant parameters, soil electrical conductivity (EC) and soil pH, in tomato plants {Lycorpersicon esculentum L. var. Floradade). Greenhouse and micro-plot experiments were conducted in winter and spring 2003 at the Horticultural Skills Centre, University of the North, South Africa. Treatments comprised unamended control, Tamboti, Chilli and a mixture of Tamboti + Chilli amendments, and were arranged in a randomised complete block design with 10 replicates. Three-week-old Floradade tomato seedlings were transplanted, each inoculated with 5000 and 4300 second-stage nematode juveniles for Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, for greenhouse and micro-plot conditions respectively. On inoculation day, Tamboti bark meal was applied at 14.8 g / plant, Chilli fruit meal at 13.6 g / plant and a mixture of Tamboti and Chilli at 7.4 g / plant and 6.8 g / plant respectively. Upon harvesting, 108 days after treatment initiation, nematode eggs were extracted from the roots in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 1 % v/v, and incubated for five days in modified Baermann trays. Juveniles were separated from the soil and debris, followed by rinsing through nested sieves (145 μm,45 μm and 25 μm) and counted using a compound microscope. Stem diameter, stem height, fruit weight, dry shoot weight, soil EC and soil pH were recorded using a Digital Vernier Calibre ®tal tape measure, laboratory scale, EC and pH meter respectively. Flower and fruit numbers were counted and recorded. In greenhouse experiment 1, Chilli and Tamboti + Chilli reduced nematode numbers (P≤ 0.05) by 55 % and 70 % respectively. In greenhouse experiment 2, Tamboti + Chilli reduced nematode numbers by 54 %. In micro-plot experiment 1 and 2, Tamboti and Tamboti + Chilli reduced nematode numbers (P≤ 0.05) by 37 % and 54 % respectively. In greenhouse experiment 2, Tamboti increased second fruit weight by 107 % and Chilli by 159 %. In micro-plot experiment 1, Tamboti + Chilli increased first stem diameter by 32 %. Generally, results indicated that Tamboti bark meal and Chilli fruit reduced nematode numbers, did not have a significant effect on plant parameters and did not affect soil EC and pH. Thus, these organic materials would be suitable as a potential organic amendment to manage nematode numbers on tomato plants. en
dc.language English en
dc.subject Agriculture en
dc.subject Plant pathology, diseases, injuries, microbiology, entomology en
dc.title Responses of root-knot nematode densities to aqueous extracts of Chilli and Tamboti en
dc.title.alternative Reaks000van wortelknoopnematode-getalle op die toediening van wateragtige aftreksels van brandrissies en tambotie en
dc.type Masters degree en
dc.description.degree MTech en

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