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45 000 years of hunter-gatherer history as seen from Umhlatuzana rock shelter

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dc.contributor.author Kaplan JM en
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-22T09:17:10Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-22T09:17:10Z
dc.date.created 1985 en
dc.date.submitted 1989 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11892/53267
dc.description.abstract Describes the excavation of Umhlatuzana Rock Shelter and the results, showing how this excavation contributes to a broader understanding of southern African MSA and LSA technological evolution. The stone artefact sequence, animal and plant remains, worked bone tools, beads, pottery and ochre finds are described. Evidence is presented which shows that the change from the MSA to the beginning of the LSA took place between 35 000 BP and 20 000 BP, while a true LSA industry occurred closer to 20 000 BP. No technological boundary exists between the MSA and the LSA; rather, change was a gradual process beginning in the MSA. The bladelet-rich assemblages recovered from Umhlatuzana Rock Shelter are the first of their kind to be positively identified in Natal. Pre-dating 18 000 BP and post-dating 12 000 BP, they show that assemblages of this nature were systematically produced earlier and later in Natal than elsewhere in southern Africa. The metric results for bladelets show that there is a progressive decrease in the mean length sizes of these artefacts from the MSA to the LSA, as well as within the LSA sequence. Statistics show that the model for gradual change is corroborated. These results have significant implications for our understanding of the culture-history sequence in southern Africa. The results also raise questions regarding the nature of MSA and MSA/LSA assemblages, and the origins of the early microlithic assemblages of the southern African LSA. en
dc.language English en
dc.subject Archaeology en
dc.subject Periods excluding iron age en
dc.title 45 000 years of hunter-gatherer history as seen from Umhlatuzana rock shelter en
dc.type Masters degree en
dc.description.degree MA en


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